Culture of the Revolution
Culture of the Revolution
Red Culture is the summation of advanced cultures which draws upon the strength of ancient and modern, Chinese and foreign civilizations. It came into being in the process of revolution and construction under the leadership of Communist Party of China while applying Marxism-Leninism in the Chinese realities and taking building socialism and realizing communism as the guide. To develop red tourism and carry forward red culture is a decision of great importance made by the Party Central Committee in order to consolidate and expand the political power from a strategic height. At present, many red tourism resources serve as the carrier of continuing and carrying forward the red culture. And various red tourism resorts are becoming important classrooms for reinforcing the education of patriotism and revolutionary traditions, spreading advanced culture and improving moral quality of the people.
Shanxi is an important gathering place of the red culture resources, which feature great quantity, various types, and elegant taste. All the 11 cities in Shanxi are dotted with revolutionary relics. Currently, the remaining relics and memorial monuments totals over 1460, of which 500 sites are listed under state or regional protection and 39 are available for visiting. Red culture resources are especially abundant in the areas along Taihang-Lvliang Mountains and the Yellow River. Red tourism resources reflecting different periods such as the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression, China’s War of Liberation, the initial stage of Socialist Construction, and period of Reform and Opening-up are available in all varieties. Revolutionary Base Areas during the War of Resistance against Japanese Aggression are distinctive resources to this district, of which the famous tourist attractions are Sites of Headquarters of the Eighth Route Army in Wangjiayu village and Zhuanbi village, Site of Pingxingguan Great victory, Site of Battle to Protect Huangyadong, Site of Shanxi-Suiyuan Border Region Government etc. In 2005, the state released the first list of 30 quality red tourist routes and 100 best selected red tourist sites, including two routes in Shanxi. Red tourist sites in Changzhi city, Matian Forward Headquarters of the Eighth Route Army in Zuoquan county of Jinzhong city, Red tourist sites in Datong city, Red tourist sites in Xinzhou city, and Red tourist sites in Taiyuan city are the six places to be listed on the first group of Classic Red Tourism Scenic Spots. In 2011, Sites of The Great Campaign with One Hundred Regiments Involved in Mountain Shinao of Yangquan city, Memorial Hall of the Eastward Fight of the Red Army in Shilou county of Lvliang city, Dazhai Museum in Xiyang county of Jinzhong and Xigou Museum in Pingshun county of Changzhi city are added on the second list issued that year.
Red culture in Shanxi started during the National Revolution. At the beginning of the founding of Communist Party of China, there were revolutionary activities in Shanxi. In the summer of 1924, Gao Junyu, appointed by Li Dazhao to promote cooperation between the Kuomintang and the Communist Party in Shanxi, set up the Taiyuan Party Branch—the first party branch in Shanxi which then served as the strong core of leadership in the revolution. In May 1927, Shanxi provincial party committee was established, marking the growing strength of the party in leading the revolution for workers and peasants. In the province, 30 counties founded the party branch at that time with more than 1000 party members. During the Agrarian Revolutionary War (1927-1937), the Special Committee of Shanxi provincial party committee led and founded the Western Shanxi Guerrilla of the Red Army and the Twenty-fourth Red Army. They launched the armed struggles in Lvliang and Taihang Muntains. Those were important practice and exploration of establishing revolutionary base areas and following the revolutionary path of encircling the cities from the rural areas and seizing state power by armed force. Meanwhile, those works also laid a firm foundation for the party to carry on revolution work and expand its mass base for the success of the Eastward Fight. The fight, began on February 20th 1936, sowed the seeds of resisting the Japanese aggression in more than 50 counties and provided the condition and opportunity for the foundation of anti-Japanese national united front and the anti-Japanese base in Shanxi, a milestone marking the upsurge of the Chinese revolution. In November, 1936, Bo Yibo took over the work of the League of Self-sacrifice for National Salvation in Shanxi and reshuffled it to a mass organization for anti-Japanese national salvation movement. They did a lot of work, such as actively promoted the anti-Japanese aggression struggle, mobilized, organized and armed the mass, opened many training classes and cultivated the backbone to lead the anti-Japanese national salvation movement. Mao Zedong once praised that “it is a successful example of the united front policy”. In the eight years of fight, Shanxi remained as the strategic area attracting the world attention and the center of anti-Japanese base in northern China. The Eighth Route Army built three revolutionary bases in Shanxi: Shanxi—Suiyuan revolutionary base, Shanxi—Chahar—Hebei revolutionary base and Shanxi-Hebei-Shandong—Henan revolutionary base and launched the national liberation war in these bases. The veteran leaders Zhu De, Peng Dehuai, Zuo Quan and Deng Xiaoping once stayed and fought in Shanxi for a long time. During the War of Liberation, Shanxi under the leadership of the communist party of China served as the strategic place for winning the countrywide victory. The victory of Shandang Battle struck a heavy blow at Chang kai-shek’s overweening arrogance of civil war. Thus enhanced the status of Communist Party of China in Chongqing Negotiation and played an important role in winning the struggle for peace and democracy. After the People's Republic of China was founded, on the ruins left after a long-term war, people in Shanxi, holding high the banner of the party, drew a splendid picture with their hands and sweat and with their brilliant wisdom and pioneering spirit. They have created the Dazhai spirit featuring self-reliance and persistent struggle; the Lvliang spirit featuring arduous struggle, taking overall interest into account, ceaseless self-improvement and innovation; the Taihang spirit featuring fearing no sacrifice, hardship and danger, keeping on fighting in spite of all setbacks, hard struggle, keeping one heart, daring to triumph, successive struggle and selfless service. Important projects such as Water conservancy projects in Wanjiazhai, Antaibao coal mine in Pingshuo and Taijiu Express way will go down in history.
Shanxi has rich red culture resources. It has provided us with numerous revolutionary relics which are of great significance in developing red tourism, guiding the people especially the youth to establish correct values, world outlook, and outlook on life, further promoting patriotism and revolutionary heroism, and accelerating the cultural development.